Joe MacDonald is a founding principal of Urban A&O, a design firm based in New York City, specializing in parametric modeling and research. He regularly incorporates his academic research into practice at the scales of building, exhibitions, and product design. His seminars explore naturally occurring organizational systems and their influence on built ecologies, new materials, and construction assembly innovations. Four operating principles describe the philosophy of the firm’s work: material exploration; the use of emerging technologies to design and fabricate form; multi-disciplinary collaboration; and the cultivation of social interaction and education through design within the public realm. The theme of architecture as an opportunistic interface for technology and space–simultaneously physical and social–is central to their investigations into future building materials and construction methods.